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Astegolimab Effectively Reduces Asthma Exacerbation, Study Finds

According to a recent study, astegolimab, a human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody, can effectively and safely reduce asthma exacerbation rate (AER).

Astegolimab Effectively Reduces Asthma Exacerbation, Study Finds
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What Is Asthma Exacerbation?

The airways become swollen and irritated during an asthma attack, also known as an asthma exacerbation. The muscles around the airways tense, and the airways generate more mucus, narrowing the breathing passages (bronchial tubes).

You may cough, wheeze, and have difficulty breathing during an episode. With timely home treatment, the symptoms of a small asthma attack subside. A severe asthma attack that does not respond to home therapy can quickly escalate into a life-threatening situation.

The key to preventing an asthma attack is to recognize and treat an asthma flare-up as soon as possible. Follow the treatment plan that you and your doctor devised ahead of time. What to do if your asthma starts to grow worse, as well as how to deal with an asthma attack in progress, should be part of your treatment strategy.

Researchers studied 502 adults with severe asthma in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging research. The astegolimab intervention was given in doses of 70 mg (n=127), 210 mg (n=126), or 490-mg (n=122) every four weeks, while the remaining 127 were given a placebo. At week 54, the primary endpoint was AER.

During the 52-week therapy term, 266 asthma exacerbation episodes occurred. 31.1 percent, 37.3 percent, and 33.1 percent of patients in the 490-mg, 210-mg, and 70-mg dosage groups, respectively, reported similar episodes. Exacerbations, on the other hand, occurred in 42.5 percent of placebo individuals.

When compared to the placebo group (AER, 0.74; p=0.0049), the adjusted annualized AER in the 490-mg dosage group was 0.42, equivalent to a 49-percent relative drop. The 70-mg group also observed a statistically significant reduction in AER compared to the placebo group (0.47 vs 0.74; 36.9% decrease; p=0.0144).

The 210-mg arm (AER, 0.58 vs 0.74; 21.9-percent decrease; p=0.1838) did not show any significant differences (AER, 0.58 vs 0.74; 21.9-percent decrease; p=0.1838).

Furthermore, the probability of having an asthma exacerbation episode was significantly reduced in the 490-mg (hazard ratio, 0.63, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.42–0.96; p=0.0326) arm (hazard ratio, 0.63, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.42–0.96; p=0.0326) arm. The 210-mg and 70-mg groups had similar risk reductions, although they were not statistically significant.

Only 50 significant adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 37 patients who received astegolimab (7.4 percent). The number of those with SAEs was similar in all groups. There were two deaths reported, neither of which were related to the study medicine.

Source: J Allerg Clin Immunol 2021;148:790-798

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